16 Apr 2014
In case you haven’t seen the epic pie order in When Harry Met Sally, watch now for context. While I don’t advise ordering complicated desserts as a great way to stick to a clean diet, I’ve got a point to make.
When I say “it’s OK to be Sally”, I mean that it’s OK to be a huge, pain in the butt when you order at a restaurant. Go ahead, be all “Can you please cook my vegetables in olive oil or steamed instead of in butter, unless the butter happens to be grass-fed” and all “Do you have any BBQ sauce made with just molasses and honey, with no cane sugar or corn syrup?”, and “can you grill that instead of frying it, please?”. It’s OK to complain when you ask for a side of vegetables instead of some other processed carbohydrate and receive a quarter cup of sad looking veggies smothered in butter/oil.
It’s OK for you to ask the Butcher or Fish Peddler to cut your meat to just the right amount. It’s OK to ask for grass fed beef or bison, and if they don’t have it ask them to go check or maybe even order some. It’s OK to ask for wild caught salmon and decide to go elsewhere if they don’t have it.
It’s OK to be honest with your friends and coworkers about what you eat. If someone is grilling Bubba Burgers, it’s OK for you to ask them to throw on a piece of chicken or bison for you. Hell, vegetarians do it all the time with their Kween-o burgers (see this ad if you don’t get the joke). It’s OK to ask that your coworkers don’t get you cupcakes on your birthday because you’re trying to avoid sugar. It’s OK to ask for the gluten free option at catered work lunches (although be advised, this isn’t always healthier per se).
I know this is a fine line. It is obviously not OK to go to your friends house for dinner and look upon the white rice, rolls, or cheese platter and condescendingly inform them “I don’t eat that”. But I feel like we have spent too much time waiting on old fashioned economics of supply and demand to produce heather products, and the movement has been slow. ’Cause the food industry is way behind. Remember how we thought egg yolks were bad for us from like the mid 1980′s until the end of the 1990′s? Want to guess when McDonalds came out with an egg white option? THIS YEAR. While we appreciate your effort guys, it’s not the yolk we have a problem with, and we haven’t for over fifteen years. Other companies are better at picking up on trends, but not necessarily to our benefit. I mean, thanks for the gluten free wanter, peanuts, and yogurt I guess… And shout out to Dunkin Donuts for the turkey sausage and turkey bacon offerings, which are really not any healthier for you than regular bacon and taste way worse.
So my point is this: If you want a healthier, better food product, ask for it. Loudly and often. Because right now the food industry is making lots of money based on the assumption (and their efforts to keep it so) that everyone just can’t get enough soda, snacks, and processed convenience dinners. That we don’t care what’s in the food as long as it sounds “healthy” or is low calorie/low carb/low fat, etc. If we want better food, we have to demand it. And nothing speaks louder with food industry than your wallet.
What do you think about this?
** A little context on the Flickr donut: when I searched “demanding” on flickr for a nice illustrative image, I stumbled upon a protest demanding Flickr give out free donuts. I think this makes asking for better food sound a little less ridiculous. I was also greatly amused, thus explaining the inclusion of this image.
02 Apr 2014
No, this is not a belated April Fool’s, although I am now kicking myself for not asking to blog a day early. I could have had a lot of fun with that one.
There’s been a lot of hate going around in the media for high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and fructose. Some “nutritionists” may even tell you to cut back on fruit because fructose is so dangerous. But is this all true?
What We Know
We know in studies of mice, feeding them diets upwards of 40-50% of their diet from HFCS leads to development of cancer, obesity, and other side effects. We can also see a graph (right) of obesity rising significantly in the 30+ years after HFCS was introduced to the food supply in the 1970′s. Meanwhile other studies are finding there are no significant negative effects attributed to HFCS.
Now, it’s become a fierce debate. One camp blasting the many ways HFCS will kill you and the other defending it’s honor, proclaiming that HFCS is perfectly safe.
The line industry and the FDA has settled on is “HFCS is no more harmful to your health than sucrose (table sugar)”.
The thing is, I agree with this. But that doesn’t mean HFCS is OK. It means the FDA and industry are missing the forest for the trees, and hoping you will too. To say HFCS is no more harmful to your health than table sugar is like saying gin is no more harmful to your health than bourbon. Would you really argue that drinking gin is fine but bourbon is not or vice versa? Of course not. You recognize that both in moderation can be enjoyed, but in excess BOTH will produce harm (in this example, in the form of liver cirrhosis and alcoholism).
I will however, agree that HFCS can cause obesity, although not directly on it’s own. After all, HFCS isn’t even that “high” in fructose – only about 5% higher than sucrose. What happened was, HFCS made sugar SO CHEAP that the industry could put it in everything, even things that never had sugar before. They could manipulate sweetness to further addict you to foods, to produce larger serving sizes for basically nothing. HFCS doesn’t chemically cause obesity, but it set the stage for the environment that would.
- Don’t eat a lot of HFCS. Anything it’s in is usually cheaply made. Personally, I prefer the taste of barbecue sauce made with molasses and honey over HFCS, but if you treat your self to something that has it every now and then you will not give yourself cancer immediately.
- Don’t fool yourself – a cookie with HFCS is just as bad for your waistline and health as a cookie made with “organic evaporated cane juice” (which is just fancy speak for sucrose).
- Keep your intake of added sugar -a ALL sugars – to a minimum. Get your carbs from complex carbs and satisfy your sweet tooth with fruit.
- Don’t avoid fruit – drinking straight fructose may be a bad idea, but eating fructose in the presence of fiber and other vitamins and minerals is the way nature intended. I mean, don’t eat 10 bananas in a day, but if you’re stressing about eating a second piece of fruit because you’re afraid it will harm your health and impact your weight loss, just stop it right now.
*There are some people for which avoiding fructose (and most other carbohydrates) at all or some parts of the day will be appropriate, including body builders on a cutting diet or women with Gestational Diabetes.
25 Mar 2014
Growing up I learned that fat was bad. Butter, beef, nuts, avocado – all “fattening” (seriously, we never had guacamole in my house growing up for this very reason). Lean meat lean beef lean lean lean has been drilled into us for the past thirty or so years. Even the American Heart Association – trusted resource for all things heart disease – recommends limiting saturated fat to just 5% of daily intake If you eat a 2,000 calorie diet, that leaves you with about 11 grams or less than a tablespoon of coconut oil per day. (Although as a side note I somewhat question AHA’s wisdom after learning they endorsed Subway as a healthy meal option. But I digress.) Heck, I even learned it in college, and told I don’t know how many patients while I was working in the hospital to “choose lean meats and avoid foods high in saturated fat”. There has been questioning of this saturated fat-heart disease link recently, with a lot of it coming from the Paleo camp (Robb Wolf, etc).
Now, a new study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition has cleared saturated fat of its charges. The review looked at 21 studies of over 347,000 people with follow up anywhere from 5-23 years. The results found no association between saturated fat intake and coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. Basically, there is no evidence to conclude that saturated fat is the devil incarnate.
What Does This Mean?
My general rule about saturated fat remains unchanged (and is essentially supported) by this study. Don’t be afraid of sat fat – there are a lot of food containing saturated fat that provide nutrients we need. Beef for example, is a good source of iron (which is needed to produce hemoglobin, a part of red cells that shuttles oxygen through the body. Not getting enough iron can result in anemia) and zinc (important for wound healing and immune health). But, most if not all of your saturated fat should still come from healthy, whole food sources – meat, milk, eggs, butter, etc and not from fried/processed foods or high sugar foods (like ice cream). Just as with carbohydrates, it’s not about the nutrient itself, it’s about where it comes from and the quality of that source.
The Bottom Line
Don’t be afraid of saturated fat. Just get it from the right place.
12 Mar 2014
Sorry for the late blog post! I’ve seen lots of new faces in the gym over the past few months, so I am reposting my go-to article on the good and bad aspects of the paleo diet, and some recommendations for using it to improve your diet for anyone who’s heard of the paleo diet during their intro sessions but still wants more information (or for anyone who wants a refresher). Also, I’m a little short on time as I’m in California for work (you feel so sorry for me, right?).
The Paleo diet - also known as the “caveman diet” – is a way of eating inspired by the diet of our Paleolithic ancestors, the men and women who lived 2.5 million years ago, before the agricultural revolution began about 10,000 years ago and provided mankind with a steady supply of grains, corn, dairy, and domestic meat. The theory behind Paleo eating is that our bodies are genetically programmed to eat certain foods, and that many modern health problems like obesity result from the introduction of grains, dairy, and other processed foods, which wreak havoc on our metabolic systems. The diet, and it’s “allowed” and “restricted” foods, are based on anthropological research providing insight into what pre-agricultural humans ate.
Foods allowed on a strict Paleolithic diet include lean meats and seafood, eggs, fruits and non-starchy vegetables, nuts (except peanuts), seeds, and plant-based oils such as olive, coconut, avocado, walnut, or grapeseed. Restricted foods include processed meats (like salami), dairy, grains such as rice, pasta, wheat, and corn, starchy vegetables like potatoes, soy products, legumes like beans and peanuts, alcohol, and refined sugar. Following a Paleo diet does not require minding of portion sizes or food measurement. The recommendation is to eat Paleo approved foods when you are hungry and stop when you are full. The idea is that it’s fairly hard to eat too many calories when they are coming from protein sources and high fiber, filling sides like vegetables, fruits, or healthy fats. The Paleo diet can be followed strictly or modified to meet your individual needs. For instance, some follow an “80/20” rule, eating Paleo about 80% of the time and allowing room for leniency with other foods or cheat days. Others follow a strict Paleo diet but include dairy, butter, or both.
The Research on the Paleo diet, while promising, is fairly limited. Several small studies have shown a Paleolithic diet may help improve markers of health in both healthy people and those with chronic disease. For example, one study showed that a Paleolithic diet resulted in lower mean glycated hemoglobin (a measure of blood sugar control over time) values, diastolic blood pressure, and waist circumference, and higher HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol) when compared to a standard diabetes diet. Among healthy adults, a small metabolically controlled study (meaning what participants ate was strictly controlled) found improvements in blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and cholesterol without weight loss over a 10-day period.
In addition, while the evidence for the Paleo diet specifically, especially in athletes, is not prolific, research has shown high-protein, low-carbohydrate type diets to be effective for fat loss in a number of studies. Recently, a study appearing in Nutrition & Metabolismfound that Paleo dieters not only felt more satisfied in terms of appetite, but also had lower levels of circulating leptin, a hormone that regulates appetite, food consumption, and body fat storage.
Why Eating Paleo is Awesome…
- It eliminates the crap – eating whole foods and avoiding food products with refined sugars, preservatives, harmful additives, high levels of sodium, and added fats has numerous benefits in terms of weight management, health, and athletic performance.
- More vitamins and minerals – because you eat more fruits and veggies on a Paleo diet, you are getting much more fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants than on a typical Western Diet. Vitamins can help, but 90% of the nutrients in a typical multivitamin tablet are not absorbed but are excreted (meaning you pee them out). Studies have shown that eating more fruits and vegetables reduces cancer risk, but when researchers attempted to isolate and supplement specific vitamins common in produce, the effect wasn’t replicated.
- Less “bad” fat and more “good” fat – the Paleo diet typically consists of more omega-3 and unsaturated fats via increased intake of foods like almonds, walnuts, and avocados and reduction in saturated fats by eliminating high fat meats and processed foods like chips and desserts. Unsaturated fats may reduce inflammation, which is good for everyone, especially athletes.
- Health Benefits – although the research is limited, the Paleo diet has been associated with greater weight loss success, greater satiety, and improvements in markers of chronic disease. There are numerous anecdotes of people having found success eating this way.
Why it’s not so awesome...
- It takes more planning – it’s easy to get enough carbohydrates and calcium on a standard American diet. It’s also easy to grab lunch at the office if you forgot to pack it. So while it’s possible to meet all your nutritional needs on a Paleo diet while enjoying good food, it requires more planning and, often times, ahead of time meal preparation. If you’re not used to packing your lunch or cooking nearly all of your meals, it will take an adjustment.
- $$$ – I don’t subscribe to the belief that it is more expensive to eat a healthy diet, but following a strict Paleo diet will up your grocery bill, at least a little bit, due to increased purchasing of meat and vegetables. This increase will be greater if you switch completely to organic and grass-fed products. On the flip side, if you give up junk food and soda and eat out less, this will probably even out.
- Does it make sense? – Dr. Cordain argues that our bodies are genetically adapted to a Paleo diet, and the influence of grains and processed foods has led to our current health problems. But people started eating bread 10,000 years ago, and the epidemic of obesity and chronic disease is at best a 30 year old problem. So is bread and dairy the devil? Or is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle combined with more people eating out more often and ever growing portion sizes the real culprit?
- Carbohydrates – for most people the moderate carbohydrate levels in a Paleo diet are enough to support normal functioning and maintain glucose and glycogen stores. However, people with higher carbohydrate needs, like endurance athletes, or rowers doing multiple workouts per day, may have a hard time meeting them on a Paleo diet.The Paleo Diet for Athletes, written by Dr. Cordain and endurance coach Joe Friel, actually recommends following a Paleo diet for most of the time while supplementing other foods, such as sports drinks, around workouts to get adequate carbohydrates.
- Difficulty – A US News Report rated the Paleo diet one of the worst diets for 2011 and difficulty was a factor. For some people, eliminating 3 major food categories (grains, dairy, legumes) may just be too much to stick with over an extended period. Going on a drastic diet that you won’t be able to maintain could result in frustration, stress, and ultimately giving up and just “eating whatever” for a while, which will be a weight loss and/or goal setback and just leads to more stress.
So what should you do?
As far as I’m concerned, there is no “perfect diet” for all people. That being said, I think there is merit to the principles behind the Paleo diet and at the very least I would consider it a good framework for building a healthy, maintainable diet. Ideally, you do want to eliminate processed foods (like Spam, Cheetos, fast food, etc) and focus on more “Paleo foods” like meat, vegetables, fruit, nuts, seeds, and oils. However having the occasional whole grain (that’s wheat bread, brown rice, whole wheat pasta, oatmeal etc), dairy product, or legume isn’t going to kill you (unless you have a food allergy).
Here are some good guidelines to follow:
- Load up on lean meats, veggies, and fruits first. They contain those essential nutrients like protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals.
- Eat a healthy diet that works for you and doesn’t drive you nuts. You want to follow a healthful nutrition plan, but you don’t want to set yourself up for failure either.
- Avoid processed crap. It’s that simple. If the ingredients list is longer than your entire grocery list and you find yourself trying to decide if it’s healthy, just put it back on the shelf. It’s probably not that great for you.
- Avoid added sugars and sodium. That includes canned stuff, “pre-made” meals, sugary beverages, junk snacks, and many breakfast cereals.
- Limit the booze. It’s empty calories and makes you feel not awesome the next day, which can increase cravings for less healthy foods and limit your desire and/or ability to work out.
- Disregard all of the above and have a cheat day every now and then. It can be good for you. Check out why here.
04 Mar 2014
Yes, the title is sarcasm. But these are real…
From TMZ: “High protein diets ‘nearly as bad as smoking’”
From LiveScience: “High protein diets raise cancer risk as much as smoking”
From the LA Times: ”High protein diets: bad in middle age, good for the elderly”
Let me start out by saying that I’m not going to tell you to eat less animal protein. But I saw this headline earlier and felt like having a rant.
I read the Washington Post iteration of this story first but couldn’t find the study cited. I then searched in Google News and found 66 articles. I read 10 of them, and none cited the actual source of the article. I also searched on PubMed but lost my patience after a page or two. So I haven’t actually read the original study or abstract, just the mainstream media reports.
What We Know
The study followed 6,000 people over age 50 for 18 years and found that people age 50-65 who ate a “high protein diet” (over 20% of calories from protein) were almost 4 times more likely to die of cancer during the 18 year study period than people who ate a low protein diet (less than 10% of calories from protein). The link between cancer and protein was only noted in people whose diets were high in animal protein (milk, eggs, cheese, and meat), but people whose protein was mostly from plant sources were not at high risk. On the other hand, people over 65 were less likely to die of cancer if they ate more protein. The higher protein diet in that age group was thought to be beneficial because it helped older participants maintain a healthy weight and avoid frailty.
There was a concurrent study in mice looking at IGF-1 (a growth factor) and showing that the higher protein diet promoted tumor growth by increasing the IGF-1. The researchers also measured IGF-1 in 2,000 of the study participants and found that increasing IGF-1 levels were linked to increasing risk of cancer death.
A Few Thoughts
- What kind of “animal protein” were participants eating? Was it grass-fed steak and grilled chicken? Or was it dollar value hamburgers and fried chicken?
- Was there any health bias? Comparing vegetarians to meat eaters can be tricky, because vegetarians have already made a conscious effort to do something healthy, whereas “everyone else who eats meat” may not have. A better comparison might be comparing vegetarians to people who are following a healthy diet that includes meat.
- Did they account for physical activity and other health behaviors? Often the health bias works both ways – people who make one choice in the name of health improvement tend to make others (like exercising, not smoking, etc). It’s likely they did, as most studies do now, but worth asking.
It’s also important to remember that this is a long term, cohort study. These types of studies are good for identifying associations, but they can’t prove cause and effect.
So What’s The Point?
Don’t listen to mainstream news when you want nutrition information. Keep eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, healthy protein and fat, avoiding processed crap and staying active. And join me in praying for a study that FINALLY compares plant based diets to healthier diets that include animal proteins. Until then, pass the bison burger…
25 Feb 2014
As the open approaches, many of us are entering competitor mode. I’m sure Neal and the other coaches will be telling us lots about mobility and recovery, so I’m just going to talk about food. How you eat can seriously impact how you perform. Read on for a few nutrition tips to help you perform your best during the Open.
Before The WODs
Before a workout, your body should have a topped off fuel tank. This means you should have enough glycogen (the body’s stored form of carbohydrate) stored as well as some more readily available from food. In general, pre workout meals or snacks should be:
- Enough energy to prepare you for the workout without leaving you hungry or with undigested food in your stomach
- Low in fiber and fat
- Higher in carbohydrates
- Moderate in protein
Meals low in fat and fiber will allow your stomach to empty in time so you can avoid stomach discomfort. The carbohydrates will top off glycogen stores (which is important, since the body relies on glycogen rather than fat stores for energy during shorter CrossFit WODs), maintain blood sugar levels, and provide energy. Protein will help you avoid hunger. In addition, it is important to be hydrated before exercise. The recommendation is that athletes drink 2-3 milliliters of water per pound of body weight at least 4 hours before working out to hydrate and get rid of any excess fluid (Rodriguez et al 2009).
After The WODs
Post Workout/Recovery is the most important time, as it is the time when your body reaps the benefits of all the hard work you’ve done. During the workout your body burns through your stored glycogen, you lose fluid to sweating, and muscle tissue is broken down. Recovery is when you can replenish your stored glycogen, replace lost fluid, and rebuild damaged muscles.
We used to think the precise timing of recovery was very important, advising that within one hour of a workout you had to have 30-60 grams of carbohydrate and15-20 grams of protein because this was during the time your metabolism was most active. The consensus was that eating right after the workout improved muscle strength and hypertrophy. However now we know that eating within this window is less important than previously thought (Schoenfeld et al). So, as long as you eat a good, nutrient rich (read: lots of vegetables and fruits) meal with protein and carbohydrates, and maintain an adequate calorie intake throughout the day, you will continue to build strength and fitness.
What To Eat
Try to eat something that not only provides these nutrients but also provides vitamins and minerals. Research has shown that chocolate milk may be a good recovery option because the milk provides calcium and magnesium, two minerals important in muscle contractions, and potassium, which is an important electrolyte lost in sweat. Other good options include a veggie omelet with fried plantain, sweet potato, or wheat toast and grilled steak with roasted vegetables.
What’s your favorite post workout meal?
18 Feb 2014
In response to our collective interest in eating healthier, food companies have started trying to make healthier products. Well, sort of. They are trying to make products that LOOK and FEEL healthier, though they may not be. Hence the emergence of things like veggie chips and other “natural products”. (As a side note, my biggest pet peeve these days is a bag of veggie chips proudly bragging “1 serving of vegetables in each portion”. Um, NO because fried potato and corn with some salt is not a serving of vegetables! But I digress).
What does the natural label mean?
Nothing. Squat. The “All Natural” and “Natural” labels on food are not regulated by the FDA or any other organization. Which means unlike labels like Organic and Low Fat, a food sporting Natural claim doesn’t have to meet any type of requirements. If not for worry of public backlash (or lawsuit), M&Ms and Coca Cola could use a Natural label on their soda and candy, too. The good news is, people are starting to recognize this (or at least lawyers are). Last year Naked Juice lost a class action lawsuit claiming that their use of the Natural and All Natural claims, despite the juices containing non-natural things like GMO soy.
How do you know what’s really natural?
Look at the ingredients label. If it contains something that don’t sound like they occur immediately in nature (like soy lecithin, GMO products, corn starch, etc), avoid it. And of course, use common sense. Something can claim it’s natural, and contain all ingredients that are, but that doesn’t make it natural. Just like frying some potatoes does not a vegetable serving make (although I can’t make the same argument for home made kale chips).
As many of you have noticed (and lamented), sleep is a big part of the Transformation Challenge. But sleep doesn’t just impact how hard it is to get out of bed or how much coffee you need to survive the day, it can also affect your food choices, sports performance, and long term health.
Sleep occurs in two parts, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. NREM sleep makes up about 75% of sleep time and consists of four stages. Stages 1 and 2 are the beginnings of sleep, when your start breathing more irregularly and begin to disengage from your surroundings. Stages 3 and 4 are the parts of the sleep cycle where the most recovery occurs, as breathing slows, tissues are repaired, energy is restored, and important hormones are released. REM sleep makes up the other 25% of sleep time, usually happening 90 minutes after you fall asleep and recurring every 90 minutes. During REM sleep, energy is provided to the brain and body, the brain is active – this is the part of sleep where dreaming happens – while the body becomes immobile as muscles are turned off.
In one way or another, all forms of cooking remove nutrients from food. For example, boiling carrots and broccoli causes them to lose some of the cancer-fighting compounds like beta carotene (carrots) and glucosinolate (broccoli) which is washed away in the water.
Both boiling and poaching can also cause water soluble vitamins like vitamins B and C to be washed away with the water. On the other hand, protein becomes easier to digest and more available when meat is cooked, and heating makes vitamin A, iron, and calcium more available in spinach.
So yes, the microwave causes a food to lose some nutrients during the heating process, but no, it does not cause nutrient losses greater than normal from any other cooking method. It does not “zap” those nutrients out of the food, and nutrient losses are not any greater than they might be from boiling or frying something. In fact, some think the microwave might actually cause less nutrient losses because the cook time is shorter.
When The Microwave Is A Good Idea
In our world, it can be very difficult to eat healthy without a microwave. At least I would find it difficult to eat out or eat cold food everyday at work. So, sometimes a microwave can help us stick to our healthy habits. Microwaves are a good idea when:
- You are heating up leftovers of a fresh, healthy meal you made from whole food ingredients
- You are heating up unprocessed foods like frozen broccoli or a sweet potato
- You are heating up water for tea
When The Microwave Is A Bad Idea
Hey, sometimes microwaves make us lazy. If all of your meals come from square boxes or the frozen section of Trader Joe’s, and you haven’t used a stove or oven in the past month, it might be time to cut back on microwave use and spend a little more time on your food preparation.
Bottom line: as long as the microwave is a secondary method of cooking (i.e. you use it to reheat home cooked meals) or a way to cook unprocessed foods (like potatoes or frozen vegetables) then nuke away! If you use the microwave daily because your diet consists of nothing but Smart Ones or Hungry Man, it’s time to consider a more unprocessed, whole foods approach and Eat Like It’s 1899.
Harvard School of Public Health http://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/updates/Microwave-cooking-and-nutrition.shtml
University of Florida IFAS Extension: Eating Defensively http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy1395
29 Jan 2014
In 1899, William McKinley was President of the United States, a 50 gallon barrel of maple syrup cost $.89/pound, and the bicycle frame and motor powered vacuum cleaner were patented. But was really interests me about 1899 (and the years following up through the 1940′s) is how people ate. Just think about it for a minute…
- In 1899 nobody had refrigerators or microwaves. So no Lean Cuisines or Frozen Lasangas for our 19th century friends.
- People in rural areas mostly grew their own vegetables. People in cities bought vegetables from the market on a near daily basis (in fact, most of Europe still does this. That might be one reason Europe does food better than America).
- Most people ate meat from their own livestock or from livestock nearby. Many people probably still hunted their own meat (venison burger anyone?). Although people in large cities did eat meat from factories with some pretty nasty processes (go ahead and check out Upton SinClair’s The Jungle if you don’t believe me).