13 Nov 2013
Omega 3 fats – also known as “healthy fats” and monounsaturated fats – have gained wide attention for their potential health benefits. Omega-3′s are found in fatty fish like tuna, salmon, trout and herring. You can get about 1 gram of omega-3 fats in a 3.5 ounce serving of fatty fish.
Types of Omega-3 Fats
There are 3 types of omega-3 fats.
- ALA (alpha-linoleic acid) – is a short chain omega-3 fat found in plant oils like walnut, olive, and soybean. ALA can be converted into DHA, but only in small amounts.
- DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) – is a long chain omega-3 fat found in fish oil, as well as breast milk and baby formula. DHA is a structural component of the brain, skin, and eyes and plays a role in cognitive health and mental health.
- EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) – is another long chain omega-3 fat, also found in fish oil. EPA is most associated with health benefits related to inflammation.
Most fish oil supplements contain a combination of EPA and DHA. There are a wide variety of purported health benefits to taking omega-3/fish oil supplements, and lots of research has been done to investigate them. Fish oils have been shown to be at least somewhat effective in reducing triglycerides, preventing heart disease, lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, reducing inflammation, and promoting good cognitive health. Fish oil may also benefit people with asthma, ADHD, and numerous other conditions. You can find a full list of conditions for which fish oil is effective, likely effective, ineffective, and not rate-able from the NIH here.
- The health benefits, obviously. We could all use a little heart disease prevention, whether we’re at risk or 22 and healthy.
- The American diet is woefully low in omega-3 fats compared to omega-6 fats, and a lot of research shows that this ratio is important for health. Even if you’re paleo, you could be getting plenty of omega-6′s from olive oil and nuts. We should be aiming for an omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1, or more ideally 1:1, but experts estimate most Americans ratio is closer to 6:1.
- They help you avoid mercury. Mercury is a metal found in a lot of seafood. The problem with mercury is that it accumulates, so there may only be a little mercury in the small fish, but by the time the big fish eats the medium fish that ate lots of small fish… a good deal of mercury has built up. The bigger, fatty fish have the highest levels of omega-3 fats, but also the highest mercury levels. This makes it hard to eat fatty fish 3-4 times per week, especially for pregnant women.
- Salmon can be expensive (and I’m not a sardine fan). If you’re watching your budget like I (and many Americans) am, a $30-40 bottle of fish oil that lasts over a month is cheaper than $26 per lb salmon 3 times a week.
- Quality fish oils can also be expensive. Canned sardines, if you like them, would be a cheaper alternative.
- It may not be effective if you take certain types of medications. For example, birth control pills can reduce the triglyceride lowering ability of fish oil, and statins can negate the effectiveness of fish oil in lowering cholesterol and reducing heart disease risk. It may also cause problems in people taking blood clotting or anti-coagulating medicines.
- It’s not paleo. For the same reason I said protein powder wasn’t paleo. That doesn’t mean it’s inherently bad for you. But if you’re committed to wearing sandals, living in a cave, and not consuming anything that’s been even remotely processed, clearly these aren’t for you.
How Much Should You Take?
The right dose depends on your particular condition and goals. For example, to lower triglycerides you’d take 1-4 g/day of fish oil, whereas for depression you’d take 9.6 grams per day along with an antidepressant.
But a lot of you are athletes, so how much should you take? The best recommendation for athletes is 1-2 grams per day, with a 2:1 ratio of EPA and DHA. Up to 3 grams per day is considered safe for most healthy people. If you regularly eat fatty fish, you can take less fish oil or take it every other day.
It’s no secret I almost always tilt in favor of food over supplements. But when it comes to fish oil, I’m a fan. It’s probably the only supplement I’d actively recommend to clients, and if you take one supplement, this is the one.
One final thought: it is important to pay attention and read labels when you’re picking a fish oil brand. I used to love recommending the Nature Made 1200 mg burp less variation, but after I did my research I realized it had gelatin and some other stuff in there, and didn’t really tell me where the omega-3s come from (which means probably not fish). I know, big time nutritionist fail. Then I bought the SFH fish oil from the gym (the tangerine and lemon flavors are pretty good), and realized it has 3.7 grams per serving. Make sure your label indicates that the fish oil is from FISH, doesn’t contain any other additives like gelatin, and the serving size is right.
Do you have a favorite brand of fish oil? Let me know in the comments!
Written by Calvin Sun
With the increasing popularity of the Paleo Diet, many people are turning to agave nectar as a sweetener in many of their favorite recipes. It’s understandable to see why people would think of using agave nectar as it doesn’t add any other flavors like many sweeteners and it tastes sweeter than sugar. Unfortunately, it’s not Paleo and it’s definitely not good for you. So imagine my surprise when I was walking through the aisles of my local Costco only to be confronted by a gigantic pallet of agave nectar. The labeling advertised it as a “low glycemic organic sweetener” and it must have worked because it was selling like there’s no tomorrow. Today, we’ll discuss some of the reasons why you should reconsider indulging in this sweet poison.
05 Nov 2013
There’s a lot of debate out there about whether or not organic foods are better than conventionally grown ones. As with most things in nutrition, it’s not so black and white, but here is a quick break down of the research and my take on organic versus conventional foods (well, fruits and veggies anyway. I’ll get to meat another day). So, enjoy this blog post with options and learn about organic foods by video or written blog.
What is your take on organic foods? Let me know in the comments!
What is Organic?
Organic” means the food was produced with agricultural methods that facilitate cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and maintain biodiversity. Organic production does NOT involve pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation, or genetic engineering.
There are a few ways organic foods can be labeled. Foods that are made with all organic ingredients can use the USDA Certified Organic Seal, which looks like this…. And can claim “100% organic” on the front label. Foods made with 95% of organic ingredients – by weight, excluding water and salt – can use the claim “organic” and also display this seal. Foods that are labeled “made with organic ingredients” contain at least 70% organic ingredients. The can be listed on the font label and in the ingredients list but the organic seal cannot be displayed on the product.
According to a review conducted in Brazil, some organic foods had slightly better nutritional content and durability, but more studies are needed to determine whether or not they are actually superior. (Sousa AA, Azevedo Ed, Lima EE, Silva AP. Organic foods and human health: a study of controversies. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2012 Jun;31(6):513-7.)
Another review, this time looking at the safety of organic versus conventional foods, found that there is not strong evidence that organic foods are more nutritious compared to conventional ones, but they may reduce the exposure to pesticides and antibiotic resistant bacteria. (Smith-Spangler C, et al. Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Sep 4;157(5):348-66)
I also found a review conducted in Germany that focused on organic versus conventional dairy. The study added data from the last three years to an existing pool of data and found that organic dairy products are higher in protein and omega-3 fatty acids and have a higher omega 3 to omega 6 fatty acid ratio than those of conventional types. Typically, the Western diet is high in omega 6 fats and low in omega 3 fats, but a higher omega 3 to omega 6 ratio is thought to reduce inflammation and risk of heart disease. The authors suspect that these results are due to the differences in the way organic and conventional dairy cows are fed. (Palupi E, Jayanegara A, Ploeger A, Kahl J. Comparison of nutritional quality between conventional and organic dairy products: a meta-analysis. J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Mar 19. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.5639. [Epub ahead of print])
A study on the environmental impact of organic farming found that organic systems had lower nutrient losses and energy requirements but had higher nitrous oxide emissions and required more land than conventional farming. Most studies did show less environmental impact from organic farming than conventional farming.(Tuomisto HL, Hodge ID, Riordan P, Macdonald DW. Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts? – A meta-analysis of European research. J Environ Manage. 2012 Sep 1;112C:309-320. [Epub ahead of print)
And finally, there is the now infamous Stanford Study. Published a few weeks ago, this review of studies on conventional versus organic fruits and vegetables found that organic produce wasn’t overall any more nutritious or any less of a health risk than conventional produce, although it did lower the risk of pesticide exposure.(Smith-Spangler C, Brandeau ML, Hunter GE, Bavinger JC, Pearson M, Eschbach PJ, Sundaram V, Liu H, Schirmer P, Stave C, Olkin I, Bravata DM. Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Sep 4;157(5):348-66.)
So, is it better?
Yes and no. Basically, what all this tells me is that organic produce has its benefits – like that it is more sustainable, better for the environment, and contains less pesticide residue. But this doesn’t mean eating conventionally grown foods are bad for you. While a conventional apple may have more pesticide residue than an organic one, it is still far below the level that the Environmental Protection Agency deems unsafe.
Focus on eating more fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables overall, no matter how they are farmed. If you can afford to buy every single item organic, and are inclined to do so, then awesome, go for it! BUT, if you’re on a tight budget, don’t worry about it. The health benefits of eating more fruits and veggies far outweighs the risks brought on by the amount of pesticide or bacteria on the item. Especially if you wash it well.
Now, if you want to start buying some organic foods, I suggest starting with milk and dairy, since research HAS shown organic diary to be nutritionally superior. Next, move on to the fruits and vegetables known as the “dirty dozen”, which are basically items with either thin or edible skins that are most likely to transmit any pesticides on to you. These are:
- Sweet Bell Peppers
Finally, I’d like to make one last point about organic foods. A lot of people associate the word “organic” with “healthy”, but this is NOT always the case. For example, organic cane sugar is no better for you than normal cane sugar, and a brownie made with organic sugars and nuts will add just as many calories and sugars as a brownie made with conventional items. When you choose an organic item, except for dairy, it should be because you want to choose something produced with a lower environmental impact and less pesticides, not because you are looking for a “healthier” or “more nutritious” food.
Photo c/o Agricultural Marketing Service
29 Oct 2013
Earlier this week I was reading an article titled something along the lines of “halloween candy is awful and horrific for kids”. Obviously candy is empty calories, sugar, and often times additives and other flavorings, and it’s not exactly the ideal food for kids, or anyone. But seeing all these articles and awareness about the evils of candy and the healthier alternatives, I realized I’m a bit torn about halloween.
The nostalgic in me remembers dressing up in costume, running around my neighborhood with other kids, collecting a bunch of candy. When we got home, we traded it with other neighborhood kids while our parents made sure all the candy was safe, and then ultimately ate a bunch of it. We got to go to bed late and eat sugar, and it was awesome. By the end of the week we’d either eaten it all – or at least all the good pieces – or gotten sick of it. Nobody died and nobody gained 20 pounds – probably because we ran around all the time and burned it off. All was well and we had a blast, so what’s the big deal?
Knowing what I know about food behavior, I worry that demonizing bad foods like candy and making a big deal about the calories and sugars can negatively effect kids’ relationship with food. Yes, it’s important to educate people about the negative effects of too much sugar and promote healthier foods like fruits and vegetables. But I’ve also seen kids who grow up in healthy households that will eat “forbidden” junk foods outside the home, almost compulsively.
The nutritionist in me knows the realities of child obesity, childhood type 2 diabetes, and inactivity compared to the mid 90′s. I know that sugar is a much bigger part of kids lives today. In my elementary and middle schools, we had no vending machines and 30 minutes of recess AND physical education, but many schools today are quite the opposite. Fewer kids play outside or on sports teams today. Basically, the food environment is worse, kids are less healthy, and a few days of too much candy has a much bigger impact today than it might have two decades ago. And when people are taking positive steps to eat healthier, get more active, and improve their health, throwing 10 lbs of candy at them because “it’s halloween!” isn’t all that helpful.
So, for now, I’m torn. I probably won’t buy any candy for myself, and tricker or treaters don’t come to my door (they’d rather over by John Kerry’s house, where they hand out better candy). So, what do you think about halloween? Do you give out candy or a healthier option for trick or treaters? How do you deal with halloween candy your kids bring home? Let me know in the comments!
23 Oct 2013
The Head of the Charles took place last weekend in Boston. A lot of rowers used the Head to get motivated by setting goals to place in the top 20, top 10, or top 3. If you got a chance to check it out please share your thoughts and pictures. Did witnessing one of the most awesome rowing events in the world get you motivated to commit to your own goals or an upcoming event?
I’m looking forward to getting the Renegade Rowing Club up and running for the winter and training for CRASH-B’s. More details on the Renegade Rowing Club and the Renegade Rowing League will be out next Thursday, so keep a look out!
Below is an excerpt from a great blog on motivation by Alex Black of Wicked Good Nutrition. Check it out and tell us how you’re getting motivated this Winter!
The Land of Motivation
Motivation can be tough. It can be hard to find your way to Motivation-land, and once you get there, it can be even harder to stay. It takes at least a month to turn a behavior into a habit, and that month will typically be rife with challenges. Because, you know, the minute you decide to give up sugar or beer the next three social outings your friends plan are a baking pot luck and outing to your favorite craft beer bar…
On top of that, some research suggests it can take up to 3 years to reset your body’s homeostasis (sense of balance) at a new weight. What this means is, if you lose 20 pounds, it can take 3 years before you body recognizes this as its new and healthy weight.
But all that aside, there are a few tricks you can use to help you get motivated and stay motivated. These include:
22 Oct 2013
It’s that time of year again – cold and flu season is just around the corner! Since the cold (rhinovirus) and the flu (influenza) are both viruses, they can’t be cured by antibiotics. And common cold medicines like Nyquil don’t actually fight the virus, they just mask the symptoms that occur when your body fights the virus. So, the best way to prevent and treat the cold or flu is to keep your immune system in tip top shape. Here’s a few things you can do:
15 Oct 2013
Leaving the house on Monday morning without any food prepared and trying to eat healthy can be like walking into the desert with no water. As you well know, the American food environment isn’t exactly the best at facilitating healthy eating. So the best way to fuel your body for success is to…. PREPARE AHEAD OF TIME!
Where do I start?
Before you get started, you’ll want to consider a few things, including:
- What your week looks like. How much time falls between now and thenext time you’ll have time to go grocery shopping and prepare a fewquality meals?
- What you want to eat for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks between now and then. Plan meals and snacks based on your work/workout schedule, i.e. make sure you have a snack for before you train and a meal/snack after you train. For more about what to eat before a workout, go here.
- Storage and reheating logistics. Will you be at an office with a fridge and a microwave? On the road with nothing but a cooler?
Decide What to Make
Depending on where you’ll be and what you’ll have access to, start planning your meals. Below are some good healthy breakfast, lunch, and snack ideas – both paleo and non-paleo – for each of the situations I mentioned above. To help you quickly find an idea for your diet of choice, (P) stands for paleo, (R) stand for primal (paleo + grass fed dairy), and (V) stands for vegetarian.
If you’re on the road
- Green smoothie w/ 1 cup milk, 1-2 cups greens, ½-1 cup frozen manog chunks (R) (V)
- Apple and almond butter (P) (R) (V)
- 4+ ounces quality deli meat, raw vegetables w/ guacamole, fruit or cold mashed sweet potato with cinnamon (P) (R)
- Salad w/ greens, veggies, nuts, and dried fruit. (V) Add chicken (P) Add chicken and feta cheese (R)
- Beef jerky (P) (R)
- Trail mix of nuts and/or nuts and dried fruit (P) (R) (V)
If you’re in an office
Any idea above plus
- Hard boiled eggs with reheated paleo style collard greens and fruit (P) (R)
- Paleo carrot banana muffins w/ almond butter and fruit (P) (R) (V)
- Irish oatmeal w/ milk, slivered almonds, and fresh or dried berries (V)
- Tuna avocado bowls (R)
- Fresh soup from your local supermarket, reheated and eaten with aside
of fruit. Whole Foods “Mom’s Chicken Soup” or Minestrone are goodexamples. Just check the label to make sure there are no preservatives or funky ingredients, and avoid generic canned soup like Campbells or Progressive, which a. won’t provide sufficient calories and b. are sure to have preservatives and/or added sugars and likely to contain MSG.
- Reheated leftovers, such as this Paleo “Spaghetti”, crock pot Pulled Pork, Sweet Potato, & Pear Stew, or Chicken Scaloppini. (P) (R)
- Fruit with or without almond or other nut butter (P) (R) (V)
- Greek yogurt with berries and nuts (R) (V)
- Steve’s “Paleo Kits” (P) (R)
- Steve’s Paleo Krunch (warning – does not last long in the average pantry due to extreme deliciousness) (P) (R)
If you’re at home or anywhere else with a full kitchen
Any ideas above plus
- Scrambled eggs with veggies and/or cheese and avocado (R) (V)
- Western omelet with fruit and avocado (P)
- Fried eggs w/ bacon and fruit (P) (R)
- Fajitia Chicken salad (P) (R)
- Leftover, reheated meat w/ side of Kale and Dried Apples or other sautéed green/vegetable.
Any idea above plus
- Baked apple chips – core and slice apples, bake at 250 degrees until crispy, usually around 2 hours.
- Frozen grapes
Plan a head, but not too much – sometimes, leftovers get old. It’s great if you can save time by cooking an entire week’s worth of stir fry on Sunday, but not if you get sick of it by Wednesday and decide to get Burger King instead. Think about what you might want that week, and plan in some variety.
Pack more than you need – one of the top reasons people have trouble sticking to a healthy diet is HUNGER. And when you’re eating clean, it can be hard to go out and grab a healthy snack. So pack a little extra. It’s always better to leave a bag of trail mix or dried fruit at work for next week than down a bag of pretzels because you couldn’t find a healthier option at your nearest gas station.
Be aware of food safety – any meat or previously cooked items should be kept cold (in the fridge or a cooler). Any of those items left out at room temperature for over 2 hours should be discarded.
Experience the Reebok Spartan Race in historic Fenway Park. The Boston Red Sox are trying to complete a remarkable season in the MLB playoffs. Now you can get the chance to create your own memories. On Saturday 11/16 there is a Spartan Sprint. You can register by clicking on the image below. You can apply the code FINISH10 and get 10% off your registration.
We are taking Pre-Orders for PROGENEX. If you want anything specific flavors or product shoot me an email: Neal. Some popular items have been the Recovery Loco Mocha
and the Cocoon Silk Chocolate
I have been using both personally. The recovery tastes great and the cocoon is helping me get some great sleep. The order is going to be placed on Monday 10/14 so let me know if you want anything added to the order.
Extreme Endurance by Xendurance
One additional product we have begun carrying is Extreme Endurance by Xendurance. I have been using it myself for two months now and have noticed improvement with my aerobic capacity and ability to fight off lactic acid build up during CrossFit WODs. Here is a review posted by The Happy Athlete.
Extreme Endurance is now available in the retail section of our gym.
I recently spent 10 days in Europe (Germany and Italy), and while I was there I enjoyed observing and experiencing the differences between their food/food system and ours. I don’t think I need to tell anyone that the way things are done there versus here is very different. You may have heard of the “French paradox”, by which the French (and other Europeans) eat diets higher in saturated fat and grains, yet are healthier and leaner than Americans. Look at this infographic of obesity prevalence around the world to highlight that point.
So, what’s the big difference? I don’t know 100%. But here are some things I observed while I was over there. Some of them are things I think might explain the paradox, and some just amused me. Keep in mind that I was there for 10 days, so I’m sure there are things I may have missed or misread.
1. Soda costs more than booze, almost everywhere. A 12-ounce can of soda was 2.50 Euro almost everywhere I went. In Germany, you could get a liter of beer for 3.50 Euro. This receipt shows Grappas (a type of Brandy) also costs less than cola. I think we might all agree that reduce the availability and low price point of soda could go a long way in reducing how much of it people drink.
2. In Germany, sausage is a salad. Who needs vegetables when there’s meat? (That’s sarcasm, guys, vegetables are really important).
3. Meat is locally grown. Most of the vegetables are, too. And it’s so fresh! Doesn’t it look delicious? Pretty sure we can again all agree that grass fed, happy, locally grown animals produce better tasting and healthier meat than industrially produced animals. Studies have shown grass fed meat is slightly higher in omega-3 fats than grain fed, and my numerous n=1 experiments have shown that it tastes far better.
4. Their large portion is our extra small. Or in Starbucks speak, “short”. Which I’ve noticed isn’t on the big menu and generally has to be asked for at many locations. Italians still drink lattes and macchiatos, but they don’t drink 30 ounces of them pumped full of pumpkin or caramel syrup.
5. We say “soda”, they say “water”. Apparently, “water” in Germany means seltzer. If you want that liquid we think of as water, you ask for “still water”. And it’s kind of hard to find.
6. There is no such thing as a supermarket. In Florence, our host told us that a few blocks over we’d find a “large supermarket with everything you could want in there”. Turns out it was smaller than the Washington Street Whole Foods and the Central Square CVS. All of the cookies, chips, and snacks were in one small aisle and fresh food was abundant. It had everything I could ever want, but I’m sure some Americans might disagree with me.
A few non- food related things I noticed…
1. Many have active commutes. In Munich, the bike lane was part of the sidewalk and just as wide. In Florence, cars can only drive in the city with special permit, so biking and walking is a regular form of commuting.
2. They get over 21 vacation days per year, NOT including holidays. One Swiss man I met at a beer hall told me he was mad that he only got 24 days instead of 27, and that he felt bad for my paltry 14 days. Hey, maybe those extra vacation days reduce stress and inflammation!
Have you observed anything interesting while living/traveling overseas?
18 Sep 2013
Everyone has heard that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Here’s why:
Every body needs a certain amount of fuel to perform the most basic functions, like breathing, circulating blood and oxygen through the body, adjusting hormone levels, and growing or repairing cells. The more you ask of your body (as in, the more exercise you do), the more fuel it needs. During sleep, your body performs all of these functions as it repairs and rejuvenates your body. And depending on when you last ate and when you wake up, you can go anywhere from 8-15 hours without eating. This leads to decreased glycogen stores and make your morning workout or routine harder.
Current research, including a review of studies dating back to the 1950’s, shows that eating breakfast is associated with better concentration, memory, and school achievement in children and adolescents compared to skipping breakfast. The brain is fueled primarily by glucose, the simple sugar also used as the body’s most readily available source of energy and found in most complex carbohydrates. Without an adequate supply of glucose, the brain does not function optimally, and skills like memory, alertness, and understanding of new information are negatively affected.
Eating breakfast habitually has been shown to reduce risk of overweight and chronic disease in children, adolescents, and adults. One study found that men who skipped breakfast were 20% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than men who didn’t, and people who ate breakfast had lower rates of heart failure through their lifetimes. In addition, people who eat a nutritious breakfast are more likely to make healthier food choices throughout the day.
Athletes need breakfast to help them maintain a balanced energy intake and fuel the brain and body for a day of training and school or work. Breakfast is especially important if you workout in the mornings, as exercising after over 8 hours of fasting will result in lower energy levels, decreased performance, and poorer concentration. Basically, you won’t be able to go as hard, move as quickly, or focus as well as you would if you had some fuel in your body.
Eating before a morning workout can be challenging, but if you had a recovery snack and good dinner the night before, your glycogen stores will be better off, so even a small amount of food will make a difference. Because you often wake up as late as possible and are short on time, the key is finding something that provides enough energy, is portable, and that you tolerate well. Your daily breakfast should contain carbohydrates, protein, fiber, and fat, but an early morning, pre-workout breakfast should be lower in fiber and fat because these two can cause stomach discomfort if eaten in high amounts right before exercise. Some good options include a banana and a few almonds, apple and deli meat or jerky, dried fruit, a fruit smoothie with protein powder, or a Lara bar. But remember that you can eat anything for breakfast, so don’t feel limited to “breakfast foods”. If you want last night’s leftovers at 7 am, go for it. The best choice for your pre-workout breakfast will depend on how much time you have between eating and training and how well your body tolerates fat and fiber close to exercise.